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- A creed is a simple way of defining and remembering things that all know, or merely likely belief, in such a way that they can be understood over a range of intellectual abilities and knowledge. Again they are as much about what is excluded as included and generally are produced in response to some external threat. A creed will generally manifests an ideology.
- A framework provides a way, or better ways, of looking at the world or an aspect of the world. Ideally a framework provides different perspectives on an issue. It allows things to be looked at from those perspectives. Frameworks can be taxonomies or typologies with the latter less prone to category errors. They can be social constructs, based on research or derived from some body of underlying theory. Cynefin for example is a typology derived from theory, but the fact that said theory implies phase shifts means that it also as some taxonomic qualities.
- A model seeks to represent reality, or more appropriately some aspect of the world. It allows for simulation and exploration without encountering the irreversibility of reality. The cliche rightly says that all models are wrong, but some are useful, but the cliche is linked to the nature of a model and its claims; it is not a universal statement.
- A method represents a defined process or processes which if followed produce defined results. It may incorporate other methods and may have ideological aspects associated with its adoption or rejection but at its heart it provides a repeatable way of achieving results which reduced the need to reinvention (that can be good or bad by the way)
- A manifesto is an ideological statement of how things should be, or more frequently how they should not be. Such documents generally represent themselves, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, as revolutionary or transformational in nature. They may be nailed to church doors to make a point or written up in books or pamphlets. They always require transition but rarely pay attention to the process of transition; they are visionary, focused on a desired future state or a despised present state.
- Sense-making How to we make sense of the world in order to act in it